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Einführung in die Programmiersprache Oberon.
OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING IN OBERON-2
ETH Zürich, Institut für Computersysteme
Oberon-2 is a refined version of Oberon developed at ETH. It introduces type-bound
procedures, read-only export of data, and open array variables. The For statement
is reintroduced. This paper concentrates on type-bound procedures which make
Oberon-2 an object-oriented language with dynamically-bound messages and
strong type checking at compile time. Messages can also be sent as data packets
(extensible records) that are passed to a handler procedure and are interpreted
at run time. This is as flexible as the Smalltalk message dispatching mechanism.
Objects carry type information at run time which allows dynamic binding of
messages, run time type tests, and the implementation of persistent objects.
Oberon-2 is available on various machines.
In 1987, Wirth defined the language Oberon . Compared with its predecessor
Modula-2, Oberon is smaller and cleaner, and it supports type extension which
is a prerequisite for object-oriented programming. Type extension allows
the programmer to extend an existing record type by adding new fields while
preserving the compatibility between the old and the new type. Operations
on a type, however, have to be implemented as ordinary procedures without
syntactic relation to that type. They cannot be redefined for an extended
type. Therefore dynamically-bound messages (which are vital for object-oriented
programming) are not directly supported by Oberon, although they can be implemented
via message records (see below).
Compared to Oberon, Oberon-2  provides type-bound procedures (methods),
read-only export of data, and open array variables. The For statement is
reintroduced after having been eliminated in the step from Modula-2 to Oberon.
This paper concentrates on type-bound procedures and the use of Oberon-2
for object-oriented programming. The other facilities are described in the
Oberon-2 language report.
Type-bound procedures are operations applicable to variables of a record
or pointer type. They are syntactically associated with that type and can
therefore easily be identified as its operations. They can be redefined for
an extended type and are invoked using dynamic binding. Type-bound procedures
together with type extension make Oberon-2 a true object-oriented language
with dynamically-bound messages and strong type checking at compile time.
Oberon-2 is the result of three years experience of using Oberon and its
experimental offspring Object Oberon . Object-oriented concepts were integrated
smoothly into Oberon without sacrificing the conceptual simplicity of the
Object-oriented programming is based on three concepts: data abstraction,
type extension and dynamic binding of a message to the procedure
that implements it. All these concepts are supported by Oberon-2. We first
discuss type extension since this is perhaps the most important of the three
notions, and then turn to type-bound procedures, which allow data abstraction
and dynamic binding.
Type extension was introduced by Wirth in Oberon. It allows the programmer
to derive a new type from an existing one by adding data fields to it. Consider
RECORD x, y: INTEGER END;
RECORD (PointDesc) z: INTEGER END;
POINTER TO PointDesc;
POINTER TO PointDesc3D;
POINTER TO PointDescXYZ;
RECORD x, y, z: INTEGER END;
PointDesc3D is an extension of PointDesc (specified by the
type name in parentheses that follows the symbol RECORD). It starts with
the same fields as PointDesc but contains an additional field z.
Conversely, PointDesc is called the base type of PointDesc3D.
The notion of type extension also applies to pointers. Point3D is
an extension of Point and Point is the base type of Point3D.
Type extension is also called inheritance because one can think of PointDesc3D
as "inheriting" the fields x and y from PointDesc.
The crucial point about type extension is that Point3D is compatible
with Point, while PointXYZ is not (though it also points to
a record with the fields x and y). If p is of type Point
and p3 is of type Point3D the assignment
p := p3
is legal since p3 is an (extended) Point and therefore assignment
compatible with p, which is a Point. The reverse assignment
p3 := p is illegal since p is only a Point but not a
Point3D like p3. The same compatibility rules apply to records.
Objects which are pointers or records have both a static type and
a dynamic type. The static type is the type which the object is declared
of. The dynamic type is the type which the object has at run time. It may
be an extension of its static type. After the assignment p := p3 the
dynamic type of p is Point3D, while its static type is still
Point. That means that the field p3^.z is still part of the
block that p points to, but it cannot be accessed via p since
the static type of p does not contain a field p^.z (Figure
Figure 1. Assignment between
the extended object and the base object
Objects like p are polymorphic, i.e. they may assume various types
at run time. The actual type an object has at run time can be examined with
a type test:
p IS Point3D
yields TRUE if the dynamic type of p is Point3D (or an extension
of it) and FALSE otherwise. A type guard
asserts (i.e., tests at run time) that the dynamic type of p is Point3D
(or an extension of it). If so, the designator p(Point3D) is regarded
as having the static type Point3D. If not, the program is aborted.
Type guards allow the treatment of p as a Point3D object. Therefore
the following assignments are possible: p(Point3D)^.z := 0; p3 := p(Point3D);
For objects of a record type, the static and the dynamic types are usually
the same. If pd is of type PointDesc and pd3 is of type
PointDesc3D, the assignment pd := pd3 does not change the dynamic
type of pd. Only the fields pd3.x and pd3.y are moved
to pd, and the dynamic type of pd remains PointDesc.
The compatibility between records is of minor importance except when pd
is a formal variable parameter and pd3 is its corresponding actual
parameter. In this case the dynamic type of pd is Point3D and
the component pd3^.z is not stripped off.
The motivation for type extension is that an algorithm which works with type
Point can also work with any of its extensions. For example, the procedure
PROCEDURE Move (p: Point;
dx, dy: INTEGER);
BEGIN INC(p.x, dx); INC(p.y, dy)
can be called not only as Move(p, dx, dy) but also as Move(p3,
Type-bound procedures serve to implement abstract data types with dynamically
bound operations. An abstract data type is a user-defined type which encapsulates
private data together with a set of operations that can be used to manipulate
this data. In Modula-2 or in Oberon an abstract data type is implemented
as a record type and a set of procedures. The procedures, however, are syntactically
unrelated to the record, which sometimes makes it hard to identify the data
and the operations as an entity.
In Oberon-2, procedures can be connected to a data type explicitly. Such
procedures are called type-bound. The interface of an abstract data type
for texts may look like this:
Text = POINTER TO
TextDesc = RECORD
... (*(hidden) text data*)
(t: Text) Insert (string: ARRAY OF CHAR; pos: LONGINT);
(t: Text) Delete (from, to: LONGINT);
(t: Text) Length (): LONGINT;
This gives a nice overview showing which operations can be applied to variables
of type Text. However, it would be unwise to implement the operations directly
within the record since that would clutter up the declarations with code.
In fact, the above view of Text was extracted from the source code
with a browser tool. The actual Oberon-2 program looks like this:
Text = POINTER TO
TextDesc = RECORD
(*(hidden) text data*)
PROCEDURE (t: Text) Insert
(string: ARRAY OF CHAR; pos: LONGINT);
PROCEDURE (t: Text) Delete
(from, to: LONGINT);
PROCEDURE (t: Text) Length
This notation allows the programmer to declare the procedures in arbitrary
order and after the type and variable declarations, eliminating the problem
of forward references. The procedures are associated with a record by the
type of a special formal parameter (t: Text) written in front of the
procedure name. This parameter denotes the operand to which the operation
is applied (or the receiver of a message, as it is called in object-oriented
terminology). Type-bound procedures are considered local to the record to
which they are bound. In a call they must be qualified with an object of
this type, e.g.
We say that the message Insert is sent to txt, which is called
the receiver of the message. The variable txt serves two purposes:
it is passed as an actual parameter to t and it is used to select
the procedure Insert bound to type Text.
If Text is extended, the procedures bound to it are automatically
also bound to the extended type. However, they can be redefined by a new
procedure with the same name (and the same parameter list), which is explicitly
bound to the extended type. Let's assume that we want to have a more sophisticated
type StyledText which not only maintains ASCII text but also style
information. The operations Insert and Delete have to be redefined
since they now also have to update the style data, whereas the operation
Length is not affected by styles and can be inherited from Text
StyledText = POINTER
... (*(hidden) style data*)
PROCEDURE (st: StyledText) Insert
(string: ARRAY OF CHAR; pos: LONGINT);
... update style
PROCEDURE (st: StyledText) Delete
(from, to: LONGINT);
... update style
We do not want to rewrite Insert and Delete completely but
only want to update the style data and let the original procedures bound
to Text do the rest of the work. In a procedure bound to type T,
a procedure bound to the base type of T is called by appending the
symbol ^ to the procedure name in a call (st.Insert^ (string, pos)).
Because of the compatibility between a type and its extensions, a variable
st of type StyledText can be assigned to a variable t
of type Text. The message t.Insert then invokes the procedure
Insert which is bound to StyledText, although t has been declared
of type Text. This is called dynamic binding: the called procedure
is the one which is bound to the dynamic type of the receiver.
Polymorphism and dynamic binding are the cornerstones of object-oriented
programming. They allow viewing an object as an abstract entity which may
assume various concrete shapes at run time. In order to apply an operation
to such an object, one does not have to distinguish between its variants.
One rather sends a message telling the object what to do. The object responds
to the message by invoking that procedure which implements the operation
for the dynamic type of the receiver.
In Oberon-2, all type-bound procedures are called using dynamic binding.
If static binding is desired (which is slightly more efficient), ordinary
procedures can be used. However, one must be aware that statically-bound
procedures cannot be redefined.
One important property of abstract data types is information hiding, i.e.
the implementation of private data should not be visible to clients. It seems
as if information hiding is violated in Oberon-2 since all record components
can be accessed if they are qualified with an object of that record type.
However, hiding components is not the business of records; it is the business
of modules. A module can export record fields (and type-bound procedures)
selectively. In client modules only the exported components are visible.
If none of the record fields is exported the private data of the record is
hidden to clients.
Object-oriented languages differ in the notations they use for classes and
type-bound procedures. We want to explain why we chose the above notation
Classes. We refrained from introducing classes but rather expressed
them by the well-known concept of records. Classes are record types with
procedures bound to them.
Methods. Methods are expressed by type-bound procedures. The fact
that their invocation is driven by the dynamic type of an object is reflected
by the qualification with an explicit receiver parameter. In a call, the
actual receiver is written in front of the message name (x.P); therefore
the formal receiver is also declared in front of the procedure name (PROCEDURE
(x: T) P (...)).
We refrained from duplicating the headers of bound procedures in record declarations
as it is done in C++  and Object-Pascal . This keeps declarations short
and avoids unpleasant redundancy. Changes to a procedure header would otherwise
have to be made at two places and the compiler would have to check the equality
of the headers. If the programmer wants to see the record together with all
its procedures, he uses a browser to obtain the information. We believe that
the working style of programmers has changed in recent years. Programs are
written more interactively and high performance tools can be used to collect
information that had to be written down explicitly in former days.
The procedures bound to a type can be declared in any order. They can even
be mixed with procedures bound to a different type. If procedures had to
be declared within a type declaration, indirect recursion between procedures
bound to different types would make awkward forward declarations necessary
for one-pass compilation.
Receiver. In most object-oriented languages the receiver of a message
is passed as an implicit parameter that can be accessed within a method by
a predeclared name such as self or this. The data of a class
can be accessed in a method without qualification. For example, in C++ the
method Delete would look like this:
void Text::Delete (int from, to)
length = length -
(to-from); // field length of the
receiver is accessed without qualification
... // receiver is accessed with
the predeclared name this
We believe that it is better to declare the receiver explicitly, which allows
the programmer to choose a meaningful name for it (not just "this"). The
implicit passing of the receiver seems to be a little bit mysterious. We
also believe that it contributes to the clarity of programs if fields of
the receiver must always be qualified with the receiver's name. This is especially
helpful if fields are accessed which are declared in the receiver's base
type. In Oberon-2, Delete is therefore written in the following way:
PROCEDURE (t: Text) Delete
(from, to: LONGINT);
t^.length := t^.length
- (to-from); (* length is explicitly
qualified with t *)
... (* receiver has the user-defined
name t *)
Type-bound procedures are one way to implement messages. Another way is to
take the phrase "sending a message" literally and to view a message as a
packet of data that is sent to an object. This requires message records of
various kinds and lengths and a handler per object that accepts all these
message records. Type-extension provides these two mechanisms. Messages are
extensible records and the handler is a procedure which takes a message as
a parameter and interprets it according to the dynamic type of the message.
Consider a graphics editor. The objects in this application are various kinds
of figures (rectangles, circles, lines, etc.) and the operations are drawing,
moving, and filling the figures. For every operation a message record is
declared which contains the arguments of the message as record fields:
RECORD (Message) END;
RECORD (Message) dx, dy: INTEGER END;
RECORD (Message) pat: Pattern END;
Next, the type Figure is declared, which contains the handler as a
Figure = POINTER
FigureDesc = RECORD
width, height: INTEGER;
PROCEDURE (f: Figure; VAR m: Message)
The handler has two parameters: the receiver of the message (which is a Figure
here) and the message itself. Since m is of type Message, all
message types that are derived from it (DrawMsg, MoveMsg, etc.)
are compatible. Note, that m is a variable parameter, so it may have
a dynamic type which is an extension of its static type Message. Every
extension of Figure (i.e., Rectangle, Circle, Line)
has its own handler that is installed in objects of this type. The handler
for rectangle objects might look like this:
PROCEDURE HandleRect (f:
Figure; VAR m: Message);
DO ... draw the rectangle f ...
DO ... move the rectangle f by (m.dx, m.dy) ...
DO ... fill the rectangle f with m.pat ...
ELSE (* ignore the
The With statement is a regional type guard. It has been extended in Oberon-2
to accept multiple variants. The above With statement should be read as follows:
if the dynamic type of m is DrawMsg, then the statement sequence
following the first DO symbol is executed and a type guard m(DrawMsg)
is implicitly applied to every occurrence of m; else if the dynamic
type of m is MoveMsg, then the statement sequence following
the second DO symbol is executed where every occurrence of m is regarded
as a MoveMsg; and so on. If no variant matches and if no else part
is specified program execution is aborted. Using objects of type Figure
requires the following actions:
VAR f: Figure; r: Rectangle; move:
NEW(r); r^.handle := HandleRect; (*initialize
the object by installing the rectangle handler*)
... f := r ...
move.dx := ...; move.dy := ...; (*set
up the message record*)
f.handle(f, move); (*send
retrieve output arguments from the message record*)
The use of message records has both advantages and disadvantages.
- The message can be stored in a variable and can be sent later on.
- The same message can easily be distributed to more than one object (message
broadcast). Consider the case where all figures have to be moved. With
type-bound procedures, the caller would have to traverse the list of figures
and send a Move message to every figure:
f := firstFigure; WHILE f # NIL
DO f.Move(dx, dy); f := f^.next END
The structure of the figure list must be known to the caller (which is not
always the case) and the code for the list traversal is duplicated in every
client. With message records one can implement the list traversal in a procedure
Broadcast to which the message is passed as a parameter:
PROCEDURE (lst: List) Broadcast
(VAR m: Message);
VAR f: Figure;
f := lst^.first;
WHILE f # NIL DO f.handle(f, m); f := f^.next END
This allows hiding the list structure and keeping the code for the list traversal
in a single place.
- An object can be sent a message which it does not understand. It may ignore
the message or delegate it to another object. For example, a Fill
message can be broadcast to all figures although only rectangles and circles
understand it, but not lines. With type-bound procedures this is not possible
because the compiler checks if a message is understood by the receiver.
- The handler can be replaced at run time, changing the behaviour of an object.
- Message records can be declared in different modules. This allows adding
new messages to a type when a new module is written.
- It is not immediately clear which operations belong to a type, i.e. which
messages an object understands. To find that out, one has to know which handler
is installed at run time and how this handler is implemented.
- The compiler cannot check if a message is understood by an object. Faulty
messages can be detected only at run time and may go undetected for months.
- Messages are interpreted by the handler at run time and in sequential order.
This is much slower than the dynamic binding mechanism of type-bound procedures,
which requires only a table lookup with a constant offset. Message records
are much like messages in Smalltalk , which are also interpreted at run
- Sending a message (i.e., filling and unfilling message records) is somewhat
In general, type-bound procedures are clearer and type-safe, while message
records are more flexible. One should use type-bound procedures whenever
possible. Message records should only be used where special flexibility is
needed, e.g., for broadcasting a message or for cases where it is important
to add new messages to a type later without changing the module that declares
Our implementation of Oberon-2 allows persistent objects. An object is called
persistent if it outlives the program which created it. To make an object
persistent, it must be possible to write it to a file and to reconstruct
it from that external format. In Oberon-2, every record object carries a
descriptor of its dynamic type. Among other things this descriptor contains
the type name as a pair (module name, type name). It is possible to implement
a procedure GetName which returns the type name of a given object,
and a procedure New which creates and returns an object of a type
specified by a type name.
Object; VAR typeName: ARRAY OF CHAR);
ARRAY OF CHAR; VAR object: Object);
If x is an extension of Object and understands a Load
and a Store message, procedures to externalize and internalize x
are (a Rider is a position in a file and is used to read and write
r: Files.Rider; x: Object);
VAR name: ARRAY 64
i := -1; REPEAT INC(i);
Files.Write(r, name[i]) UNTIL name[i] = 0X;
IF x # NIL THEN x.Store(r)
END (* store fields of x to r *)
r: Files.Rider; VAR x: Object);
VAR name: ARRAY 64
i := -1; REPEAT INC(i);
Files.Read(r, name[i]) UNTIL name[i] = 0X;
IF x # NIL THEN x.Load(r)
END (* read fields of x from r *)
More details on persistent objects as well as on optimization aspects can
be found in .
In order to support object-oriented programming certain information about
objects must be available at run time: The dynamic type of an object is needed
for type tests and type guards. A table with the addresses of the type-bound
procedures is needed for calling them using dynamic binding. Finally, the
Oberon system has a garbage collector which needs to know the locations of
pointers in dynamically allocated records. All this information is stored
in so-called type descriptors of which there is one for every record type
at run time.
The dynamic type of a record corresponds to the address of its type descriptor.
For dynamically allocated records this address is stored in a so-called type
tag which precedes the actual data and which is invisible for the programmer.
If f is of dynamic type Rectangle (an extension of Figure),
the run-time data structures are shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2. A variable f
of dynamic type Rectangle, the record f points to, and its
Since both the table of procedure addresses and the table of pointer offsets
must have a fixed offset from the type descriptor address, and since both
may grow when the type is extended and further procedures or pointers are
added, the tables are located at the opposite ends of the type descriptor
and grow in different directions.
A message v.P is implemented as v^.tag^.ProcTab[Index-of-P].
The procedure table index Indexp is known for every type-bound procedure
P at compile time. A type test of the form v IS T is translated
into v^.tag^.BaseTypes[ExtensionLevel-of-T] = TypDescAdrT. Both the
extension level of a record type and the address of its type descriptor are
known at compile time. For example, the extension level of Figure
is 0 (it has no base type), and the extension level of Rectangle is
Type-bound procedures cause no memory overhead in objects (the type tag was
already needed in Oberon-1). They cause only minimal run-time overhead compared
to ordinary procedures. On a Ceres computer (NS32532 processor) a dynamically-bound
procedure call is less than 10 % slower than a statically-bound call .
Measured over a whole program this difference is insignificant.
More details on the implementation of Oberon, particularly on the garbage
collector, can be found in  and .
Oberon-2 was developed on the Ceres computer and has been ported to several
other machines. Currently it is available on Sun's SparcStation, on Digital's
DECstation, and on IBM's RS/6000. The compiler and the whole Oberon system
(garbage collection, command activation, dynamic loading, etc.) is available
from ETH without charge. It can be obtained via anonymous internet file transfer
ftp (hostname: neptune.inf.ethz.ch, internet address: 126.96.36.199, directory:
Oberon-2 is the result of many discussions among the members of our institute.
It was particularly influenced by the ideas of N.Wirth, J.Gutknecht, and
J.Templ. The compiler and the system were ported to other machines by R.Crelier,
J.Templ, M.Franz, and M.Brandis.
1. Wirth, N "The Programming Language Oberon" Software Practice and Experience,
Vol 18, No 7,
(July 1988), pp 671-690.
2. Mössenböck, H "The Programming Language Oberon-2" Computer
Science Report 160, ETH Zürich (May 1991).
3. Mössenböck, H and Templ, J "Object Oberon - A Modest Object-Oriented
Language" Structured Programming,
Vol 10, No 4 (1989), pp 199-207.
4. Wirth, N and Gutknecht, J "The Oberon System" Computer Science Report
88, ETH Zürich (1988).
5. Pfister, C and Heeb, B and Templ, J "Oberon Technical Notes" Computer
Science Report 156, ETH Zürich (March 1991).
6. Stroustrup, B "The C++ Programming Language" Addison-Wesley (1986).
7. Goldberg, A and Robson, D "Smalltalk-80, The Language and its Implementation",
8. Tesler, L "Object-Pascal" Structured Language World, Vol 9, No 3, (1985).